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3Dプリンターの家 住宅ローンから世界は脱却できるか?

3D Printed Houses: Can the world break away from mortgages?

Technology is constantly evolving.

I thought 3D printers had finally come this far.

It will be possible to build houses with 3D printers.

The photo is from a company called Serendix.

Personally, I feel that 3D printed houses have three great points.

1. Very small and extremely short mortgage loans are justice.

First of all, the biggest point is the price.

According to Serendix's website, a small 10 square meter building costs 3.3 million yen. It's probably a prototype.

The problem is that baths and kitchens are the most expensive parts of building a house, so I'm not sure if this prototype can be called a house, but the low cost is a big advantage.

As you know, Japan is a country prone to earthquakes, and earthquakes such as the one directly hitting the capital and the Tokai/Tonankai earthquake are guaranteed to occur. I can confirm this. The question is "when?"

The average age for starting a mortgage loan in Japan seems to be around 40 years old. The average age to pay off a home loan is approximately 75 years old. Take out a 35-year real estate secured loan (mortgage loan).

There is no guarantee that a major earthquake will not occur within 35 years. This is a big risk.

This is because the Building Standards Act stipulates that the design must be designed to avoid damage in the event of a small earthquake, and to protect the lives of residents in the event of a major earthquake while allowing for damage to the extent that the building will not collapse. Because there is.

In other words, houses will be destroyed in a major earthquake.

In 1981, the new seismic design law was enacted, and the most important point was that the seismic force was more than doubled. I have forgotten what led to the enactment of the new seismic design law, but it seems that houses collapsed under the old seismic design law, and I personally don't live in buildings built before 1981. I have recommended it to everyone I know. Although it is much stronger than buildings designed using the old seismic design method, it is still damaged. This is because, although it is theoretically possible to create a house with no damage at all, the structural components would be too large to be practical (economical).

Many people were affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake. The biggest problem is that the house gets damaged in the middle of paying off the mortgage, making it impossible to live there. If I remember correctly, the government at the time doubled government guarantees for housing loans and other loans for people affected by the disaster, and asked financial institutions to make it possible for people affected by the disaster to get another mortgage loan. ing.

Double mortgage. It's an impossible game.

After all, we don't know when it will come, but in the case of a major earthquake that will definitely come, we can reduce the risk of life by reducing the loan amount and shortening the loan period (for example, to about 5 years, similar to a private car loan). That's all I can say.

Extremely small and extremely short mortgage loans are justice .

2. Being small is justice.

Earthquake force increases in proportion to the weight of a building. It goes without saying that if you shake a heavy object sideways, the inertial force will be stronger, and the force that will keep it moving will be stronger.

Generally speaking, being small means being light and strong.

The weight of a building varies depending on whether it is wooden, steel-framed, or reinforced concrete, but in general, smaller buildings mean lighter weight, and the shear walls are closer together, making them more rigid.

Small houses made with 3D printers will probably be made of unreinforced concrete (concrete without reinforcing steel). Although it may seem contradictory at first glance, a heavy concrete structure is more rigid and resistant to shaking.

This is due to structural calculations; in general, concrete structures have a larger 2 o'clock moment of area than wooden or steel structures, making them more difficult to bend. This is extremely resistant to typhoons and gusts of wind, eliminating the phenomenon of walls shaking during typhoons.

I think the strength against earthquakes and the like cannot be known until we actually conduct time history response analysis, 3D FEM analysis, or full-scale vibration experiments. This is because although compression calculations can be done, the tensile stress of concrete is too small in structural calculations and is ignored in general structural calculations.

However, I think it would be quite strong if it were small in size and had a capsule-shaped structure like the one in the photo, which is integrated with the wall.

3. Actually, the entire house cannot last for 35 years.

Many people may not know this, but even if you take out a 35-year mortgage, the entire house will not last for 35 years.

In fact, the design service life of piping, etc. is 10-12 years. Well, if you keep it for 15 years, the water supply will leak, the sewage pipes will crack, or some other maintenance will be required.

The exterior walls also need painting. I wonder if there's a lot of siding now? Or maybe galvanium steel plate? Siding etc. have a design lifespan of 40 years, but the actual lifespan of paint is generally about 10 years. Designed service life is just how long it will last with proper maintenance, not 40 years if left unattended.

The design lifespan of a roof is 30 years (a waterproof layer placed between tiles or slate and the roof). The service life of a slate roof is 30 years. The tiles are 30-40 years old. However, the lifespan of roofing is 30 years anyway, so extensive roof maintenance will be required around that time.

In other words, after 30 or 35 years, it will require fairly extensive maintenance.

Do you have that much energy after paying off your loan at the age of 75? That's what it means.

If I could keep the price down to about the same as buying a car, I would be able to replace everything during maintenance, and the construction time is apparently 24 hours, so I could complete something like building a new house while staying at a hotel for about two days. , Is it a place where you can feel safe even in old age? It feels like a car.

Since it is a small concrete structure, thicker insulation than usual is essential.

Concrete has a high thermal conductivity, so if you don't insulate it, it will get very hot in the summer and very cold in the winter.

A long time ago, I heard that there was an architect named Tadao Ando, ​​and that the poured concrete buildings he designed had almost no insulation and were extremely hot and bulky.

Even if you increase the insulation performance to the maximum, it probably won't cost that much, so I think that the cooling and heating efficiency will increase significantly after that, and there will be cost benefits.

After thinking about it for a moment, I think that a 3D printed house might be the perfect home for Japan, a country prone to natural disasters such as earthquakes and typhoons.

That's interesting. I think I'd like to try it.

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